The announcement of the nobel prize in physics was made today. The prize goes to Yoichiro Nambu, Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa.
The prize goes for flavor symmetry breaking due to weak interactions. This is parametrized in the modern days by a three times three unitary matrix called the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa marix and it is an integral part of the standard model of particle physics.
It is the source of CP violation in the standard model: how we see the matter over antimatter asymmetry in physical processes.
The half of the prize awarded to Nambu goes for explaining aspects of spontaneous symmetry breaking. This mechanism is what gives mass to the quarks. Combined with the work of Kobayashi and Maskawa, this makes it possible to see the different flavors as different masses and to predict that they will mix with each other via the weak interactions. Congratulations to all of them.